In this section are kept pieces from the period of the VI millennium BC till the end of the Second Bulgarian kingdom. They give us the opportunity to trace the material and spiritual culture of the inhabitants of the region. The exhibits have been grouped in the following collections:
pre-historic tools made of stone, flint and horn, including stone axes, hammers and claw-hammers, flint graters, spuds and awls anthropomorphic and zoomorphic idol clay figures
a collection of clay vessels different in form and function - pre-historic, Hellenic, Roman, early Byzantine and medieval art is represented in a collection of works of clay figures, the most characteristic of which are: a torso of the God Aesculapius, a statuary group of the god Dionysus and his suite, inscriptions, ritual plates and a collection of bronze figures where the statue of the god Hermes stands out.
a collection of a great variety of bone pieces, found during the excavation works at the Sliven fortress, which show the well-developed bone production a rich numismatic collection of Hellenic, Roman, Byzantine, medieval and Ottoman coins. The number of seals is impressive. The lead seal of knyaz Boris I is the most valuable among them. a collection of antique and medieval jewellery.
There are three specialists who work in this section. They are a numismatist and two curators, specialists in medieval and antique archaeology.
They organise and take part in archaeological excavation works , field studies, scientific conferences, scientific readings, round table discussions, and other scientific activities.
They publish their research work in specialised editions, archaeological magazines and in the publications of the museum itself.